Chapter 9 - Anti-Aging Diet


ANTI-AGING DIET - INTRODUCTION

Next to the air your breath, food entails the largest volume and the second most frequent contact your body makes with the environment.

Anti-aging diet is not a diet in the sense that its objective is to make you loose weight. Anti-aging diet is actually a lifestyle of dietary habits that will lead you to longevity. It is therefore not a weight reduction diet, although it has weight reduction effect. To be successful, you must have a thorough understanding what it is and why is it so.

Anti-aging diet consists of 2 components:

  • Calorie Restriction ( not starvation )
  • Modified Mediterranean Diet

Now let us look at each of these two components in depth.

 

HOW MUCH FOOD DO you NEED

The average American takes in 2-3 pounds of food per day. That's 600 pounds of food per year and close to 20 tons of food over a lifetime. Not only do you have to know the right kinds of food to take, you also need to know the amount of food you take.

From an anti-aging perspective, most leading scientist and researchers agree that food can be used as a "drug" to defer aging. This involves the re-orientation of your thinking to treat food with the same respect as you treat a drug. That is, take only what you need and take it with care.

As your body matures, your basal metabolic rate decreases. In other words, your body's idle speed slows down. The same amount of food intake during old age is more likely to be converted into fat than protein. If you take in the same amount of food as when you were young, you will end up with fat accumulation at common places such as the belly and hips. As you age, your calorie intake should be restricted to minimize the accumulation of fat, yet maintain enough nutrients for your body to maintain its optimum function.

 

CALORIE RESTRICTION- WHAT IS IT?

Fortunately, there is one magic elixir that can turn back the hands of time to improve the quality of life as you age. It is known as calorie restriction. If you understand the principle behind overindulgence of food intake will produce excessive oxidation, increase fat storage, excessive insulin load and sugar imbalance, it is easy to see that the reverse - restricting the amount of calorie intake - has the opposite and rejuvenating effect.

For the past 60 years, calorie restriction is the only proven technique to reverse the aging process. In many controlled laboratory animal studies, restricting calorie intake had always lead to a longer and a more functional life with less chronic disease. Calorie restriction studies in rats showed a doubling of mortality from an average of 101 days to 197 days. Studies have long been undertaken to find out why Okinawans from Japan have more than four times the centenarians per 100,000 populations than other Japanese do. From the diet perspective, the Okinawans eat three times more vegetables, two times as much fish, and one-third fewer calories than the standard Japanese diet. It will take many more years of scientific research to fully understand the mechanism of how calorie restriction works within your body. But there is no doubt that it works. Do you have the time to wait, or is it smarter to follow the restrictions now given the overwhelming amounts of data and research already in place?

 

CALORIE RESTRICTION VS. MALNUTRITION AND STARVATION

Calorie restriction is different from malnutrition, starving, or extended fasting.

These practices actually accelerate the aging process as they create nutritional deficiencies. Calorie restriction, if properly carry out, provides the body with all the nutrients it needs without overburdening the organs and system function. By limiting calorie intake to the level required by the body for optimum function (as measured by the maintenance of lean body mass), The body is a miraculous machine that self-regulates. When you take more food than you need, the engine of your body goes into overdrive to digest the food and store what you don't need in the form of fat. If you restrict the body only to what you need to maintain a physical and active lifestyle, your body automatically tones down its basal metabolic rate to conserve energy it doesn't have. This is your body's way of survival.

Like an old car, your body's engine needs premium gasoline to prime itself as you. If you are not mindful of this and continue to abuse your body with "non-premium " gasoline and rough outings ( like going on a eating binge) , you are causing unnecessary strain to your body's organs. Sooner rather than later, your body will break down.

What happens to your body as your calorie intake decreases? As your calorie intake decreases, firstly, the works necessary to be undertaken by your body to digest the food also decrease. In other words, there is less oxidative stress. Secondly, the body metabolic rate automatically slows down and readjusts itself to match your energy expenditure to that of intake. This is the body's way of preserving itself. Thirdly, the slowing down of your organ system gives them more rest and prolongs the life span of each of the organs. As your organs remain healthy, you live longer.

Malnutrition and starvation is an extreme form of calorie restriction, which is age accelerating and should be avoided. A car cannot run on no gasoline, and your body needs food to generate energy. During malnutrition or starvation, your body breaks down your muscles and organ structures for energy and this is very destructive.

 

BENEFITS OF CALORIE RESTRICTION

The physiological benefits of calorie restriction are many, including:

  1. Increased maximum life span
  2. Increased learning ability (sharper mind)
  3. Increased neurotransmitter receptors (clearer mind)
  4. Decreased fat accumulation (better body contour)
  5. Decreased insulin level (better sugar control)
  6. Decreased cancer (less oxidative damage)
  7. Decreased heart disease (less stress on the cardiovascular system) <
  8. Decreased loss of bone mass (less osteoporosis)

 

HOW DOES CALORIE RESTRICTION PRODUCE SUCH GOOD RESULTS

Calorie restriction works on three different levels:

  1. As food intake decreases, metabolism goes down. Free radicals form as by-products of the metabolic cycle of your body decrease. Less free radicals means less cellular damage and less likelihood of cancer and other free radical linked diseases
     
  2. Calorie restrictions cause an increase in protective enzymes such as superoxide dimutase and glutathione peroxidase, both of which oppose free radicals. Certain hormone production such as melatonin, which has anti-oxidant function, is increased.
     
  3. Calorie restrictions, if properly carried out through eating more frequent smaller meals rather than few big meals, reduce insulin secretion and stabilize blood sugar level.

 

IDEAL BODY WEIGHT

Do you need to be on a calorie restriction program? The answer depends on your current body weight and composition.

Let us take a closer look at how you can determine if you are a candidate for this program or not. First some basic understand of terminology is required.

There are 2 kinds of weight target commonly use as reference point to determine if you are overweight or underweight:

  1. Ideal body weight.
  2. Target anti-aging weight.

The ideal body weight is a statistical average that assumes that you are an average American in your mid twenties. The average American an imaginary person that does not exist. Whether you are average or not is not important. The important thing to remember is that you are unique and that the ideal body weight is a statistical tool to give you some general guidance on how much you should weight. If you have a special built or medical condition, then you should go by other criteria, including your feeling, instead of blindly following a statistical number.

 

TARGET ANTI-AGING weight

Target Anti-aging weight is the weight you want to achieve to obtain maximum longevity benefits. There is no hard and fast rule on what this should be at this time. From many studies where calorie restrictions of 30-40% were carried out in laboratory animals, longevity commonly increases by up to 100%. Most researchers in the anti-aging field find a 5-10% reduction from the ideal body weight a prudent and conservative approach to longevity.

 

CALCULATE YOUR IDEAL BODY WEIGHT AND YOUR TARGET ANTI-AGING WEIGHT

If you are a female, your ideal body weight is equal to 100 pounds plus 5 pounds for each inch you are above five feet. If you are five feet five inches tall, for example, your ideal body weight is 125 lbs. Add a couple of pounds if you are large frame (if you are unable to wrap your hand around the opposite wrist) and minus a couple of pounds if you have a small frame.

To calculate your target anti-aging weight, subtract 5-10% from the ideal weight. Continuing on the above example, your target anti-aging weight is 112-118 pounds.

If you are a male, your ideal body weight is equal to 106 pounds plus 6 pounds for each inch you are above five feet. If you are five feet 10 inches tall, for example, your ideal body weight is 166 lbs. Add three to five pounds if you are large frame (if you are unable to wrap your hand around the opposite wrist) and minus a couple of pounds if you have a small frame

To calculate your target anti-aging weight, subtract 5-10% from the ideal weight. Continuing on the above example, your target anti-aging weight is 149-157 pounds.

 

ARE YOU A CANDIDATE FOR CALORIE RESTRICTION?

If you are like most people, chances are you are about 10-20% above your ideal body weight. Not only do you have to lose this extra weight to get down to the ideal body weight. In addition, you also need to lose a further 5-10% to reach your target anti-aging weight for maximum longevity.

If you are one of the minorities that have already reached anti-aging weight, congratulations. Just keep the same amount of food intake.

Always consult your physician before embarking on any diet or weight reduction program, especially if you have special medical conditions.

 

HOW MANY CALORIES TO LOOSE FOR EACH POUND OF weight

If you don't do anything different in your diet, you are going to be maintaining your current weight, assuming that your life style does not change and you are maintaining your calorie input to balance the output.

If you wish to lose weight, you need to burn 3300 calories extra for every pound of excessive weight you are carrying now. If you are like most people, you are 15 pounds above your ideal body weight. Losing one pound per week (recommendation is to lose no more than one pound per week) would take you 15 weeks to lose all the weight. Give yourself a few more weeks just in case so that there is no self-imposed pressure to perform.

 

A DUMMY'S APPROACH TO weight REDUCTION

There are only two ways that help you to lose weight and more importantly, keeping the weight off. These are exercise (2000 calorie per week) and calorie restriction.

If you are like most Americans, you are taking about 2000-2500 calories a day. Going on a 20 % calorie restriction program 5 days a week would saves you about 500 calories a day ( 2500 calories a week ). Add to this an exercise program to work out 1000 calories a week ( 3 workouts at 300 calories per workout). In total you would loose about 3500 calorie a week which is equivalent to 1 pound per week. To put it simply, just eat 20% less 5 days a week and do aerobics exercise about 30 minutes 3 times a week is all you have to do to loose 1 pound a week which is the maximum recommended.

If you are 12 pounds away from your target, budget 12 weeks to get there. Add 3 weeks in case your schedule is disrupted. Total time budgeted is therefore 15 weeks. Don't forget that it had taken you years gradually to put on the weight. Be patient and loose it slowly over 1-2 year period is not uncommon. Most quick fix diets do not work and you get a rebound effect.

Once you reach your target weight, you will need around 1500 calorie to 2500 calorie to maintain your weight, depending on the level of activity.

 

CALORIE RESTRICTION AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTATION

Now that you know calorie restriction is an important component of an anti-aging program , it is equally important to address the pitfall of such a program.

Through calorie restriction, how do you know if you are getting all the right nutrients? Key nutrients such as 400 I.U. of Vitamin E and 50 mcg of chromium are needed for optimum function. To get this amount however, a 5000 calorie diet is required. It's a catch twenty-two situation, as taking in 5000 calorie a day will lead to weight gain and many harmful effects for most people. That's where nutritional supplementation comes in. Taking nutritional supplementation allows you to carry out a calorie restriction program and yet maintaining optimum level of nutrients.

 

THE MODIFIED MEDITERRANEAN DIET - WHAT IS IT?

The famous Mediterranean diet is a cuisine that is rich in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat. It is a very good model for anti-aging diet. This diet has been shown in studies to reduce the risk of heart disease, and is definitely beneficial for cancer prevention. It is long meals, not fast food. It is fresh, not frozen. It is a diet high in fiber, anti-oxidants and other important nutrients. It is about sharing meals with family and friends, taking time, taking pleasure, and making every meal a healthy celebration.

The Anti-Aging diet is based on the principles practiced in the Mediterranean Diet but modified. Here are the characteristics of the Modified Mediterranean Diet:

  1. An abundance of food from plant sources, including fruits and green leafy vegetables from vegetables grown above the ground, beans, nuts ,and seeds. High Glycemic index grains such as wheat, rice, and corn are avoided , as well as vegetables that are gown underground (which are predominately high glycemic)  such as potato, yam, and carrots. These are avoided because they are rich in sugar and raise insulin level once inside the body.   This food from the plant sources forms the core of the Mediterranean diet while food from animal sources was more peripheral. A diet based on these patterns is likely to be sufficient in all essential nutrients necessary to maintain health. Put plant sources in the center of your plate rather than animal sources.
     
  2. In the traditional Mediterranean diet, fruits and vegetables were mostly locally grown or gathered, seasonally fresh, often consumed raw or minimally processed. This kind of dietary habit is incorporated into the Anti-Aging diet for their health promoting mechanisms. They provide dietary fiber, anti-oxidants and other micronutrients that are destroyed by heat.
     
  3. Sugar is Kept to a minimum. Special care is taken to minimize intake of sugar hidden in processed foods under names such as glucose, sucrose, dextrose, high fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, as well as sugar.
     
  4. Dairy products are avoided. They are highly allergenic. 
     
  5. Weekly consumption of moderate amounts of fish and poultry. Recent research suggested that fish is more favored over poultry.
     
  6. Intake of 1 egg  per day is acceptable  (including those used in cooking and baking). and an excellent source of protein. Contrary to popular belief, egg does not raise cholesterol as it is portrait to do. 
     
  7. Red meat is only taken a few times per month (consumption should be limited to a maximum of 12-16 ounces per month, lean versions are preferable).
     
  8. Fresh fruit is the typical daily dessert. Sweets and saturated fat desserts should not be consumed more than a one time a week. Total fat is approximately 25-30% of energy with saturated fat not more than 7-8% of energy (calories).
     
  9. Olive oil, the major source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, is high in mono-unsaturated fat and is a good source of anti-oxidant.

 

ANTI-AGING DIET PYRAMID

Based on the Mediterranean Diet model, we  have created the Anti-Aging Diet Pyramid. This Diet consists of 50-55% complex carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables) , 20-25% protein (preferably from plant sources), 25-30% fat, and 5% sweets, candies and dessert. This is in sharp contrast to the typical American diet where, 46% comes from carbohydrate, 11% from protein and 43% of calories comes from fat.

There are three major layers to the Anti-Aging Food Pyramid. They are divided into daily,  2-3 times a week, and weekly  layers. Imagine a pyramid with three layers, each layer getting much narrower as it gets closer to the tip. 

The broad base layers of the pyramid starts with 10 glasses of pure filtered water a day and  complex carbohydrates supplying up to 55% of the calories These carbohydrates are those of low glycemic index type - barley, cereal,  legumes, and above ground green leafy vegetables.  A limited amount of nuts, which is a fatty food, is also included in this first base layer. Three servings of vegetables should be taken daily. High glycemic index complex carbohydrates such as wheat, rice, and corn should be restricted. Moderate amount is acceptable if they are mixed with fat and protein. 

Egg forms also part of the base layers. It is a good protein source. One egg per day is acceptable (including those used in cooking and baking). Organic eggs are the best. 

Olive oil and fats from fish, nuts are part of this daily layer. 25-30% of the calories in your comes from fats. The fats in the diet should come mainly from olive oil, which is high in monounsaturated fats and also a good source of antioxidant. Some comes from the fish, poultry and meat consumed. 

The second layer is a much smaller layer contains protein food from fish and poultry. You should eat from this group 2-3 times a week. Fish should be those that live in deep and cold water, such as salmon and tuna. Poultry should preferably comes from free range chicken. 

The third layer, which is very small , contains foods that one should eat 1 time a week. These include sweets, red meat (lean). 

 

The Glycemic Index (GI)


The glycemic index represents the magnitude of the increase in blood glucose that occurs after ingestion of the food. This index measures how much your blood sugar increases in the two or three hours after eating. 

When you make use of the glycemic index to prepare healthy meals, it helps to keep your blood sugar levels under control. GI tends to be lower for foods that have a high fructose content, exhibit high amylose/amylopectin ratios, are present in relatively large particles,are minimally processed, and are ingested along with fat and protein. 

Below is the general guidelines to what is high or low Glycemic Index (GI) foods.

High GI Foods

The following foods are considered unacceptable: 

  • Foods containing sugar, honey, molasses, & corn syrup. 
  • Breads - all white breads, all white flour products, corn breads
  • Grains - rice, rice products, millet, corn, corn products 
  • Cereals - all cereals except those on the Low GI List below 
  • Pasta - thick, large pasta shapes 
  • Fruits - bananas, watermelon, pineapple, raisins 
  • Vegetables - potatoes, corn, carrots, beets, turnips, parsnips 
  • Snacks - potato chips, corn chips, popcorn, rice cakes, pretzels 
  • Alcohol - beer, liqueurs, all liquor except red wine
Low GI Foods

Look at what you can have: 

  • Foods sweetened with saccharin, aspartame, fructose 
  • Breads - whole rye, pumpernickel, whole wheat pita 
  • Grains - barley, bulgur, kasha 
  • Cereals - Special K, All Bran, Fiber One, regular oatmeal 
  • Pasta - thin strands, whole wheat pasta, bean threads
  • All meats 
  • All dairy products (no sugars) 
  • Fruits - all except the High GI fruits above 
  • Vegetables - all except the High GI vegetables above 
  • Snacks - nuts, olives, cheese, pita chips, fried pork rinds 
  • Alcohol - red wine 
  • Misc. - olives, eggs, peanut butter (no sugar)

 

CUSTOMIZING AN ANTI-AGING DIET PLAN

Planning an effective anti-aging diet is not difficult. For each meal, do the following:

Pick one serving (2 ozs.) from any one of the following protein source:

Legumes, egg , swordfish, RED roughly, salmon, tuna, crab, lobster, chicken breast, turkey breast, top round steak, lean ground beef, lean ham, low-fat cottage cheese, tofu, yogurt

Pick one serving (1 cup) from any one of the following carbohydrate sources:

Mashed potato, new potato, sweet potato, yam, squash, steamed brown rice, couscous, pearled barley, pasta, oatmeal, beans, corn, strawberries, melon, apple, RED, fat-free yogurt, whole-wheat bread, pita bread, and fruits that are not high GI (watermelon, banana, pineapple, raisin).

Pick two servings (2 cups) of from any of the following vegetables:

Broccoli, asparagus, lettuce, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, green peppers, mushrooms, spinach, tomato, peas, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, zucchini, cucumber, onion, any green leafy vegetables.

This will give you a rough idea of what an anti-aging diet should resemble. you should have plenty of greens on your plate. At the end of the meal, chances are you are only 70% full but you should feel light and ready for a brisk walk.

 

ANTI-AGING DIET TIPS

Staying youthful is equal to staying healthy. They go side by side. And staying healthy is controlled, to a large degree, by daily habits of eating. If your eating habits have become just a habit with little thoughts put into them, your diet can be imbalance in nutrients and calories. Keep in mind that the quality of life starts at the nourishment level for each of your cells.

The following dietary guidelines are to help you to incorporate sound nutritional habits into your daily life. These are simple tips especially useful if your focus have not been on a balanced diet before:

  1. Be aware of the amount of calories you need to maintain your ideal weight. 5-10% below ideal body weight is a good target for anti-aging weight.
     
  2. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time for calories burn off and digestion.
     
  3. Reduce overall fat and sugar intake. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and fried food from your diet. Substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet. Fruits are filled with fibers, anti-oxidants, vitamins and minerals, which are essential for anti-aging and keep the body youthful.
     
  4. Eat a variety of  complex carbohydrates and vegetables instead of  bread, rice, and corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level and aging of the arteries is minimized.
     
  5. You do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as beans and miso ( fermented soy) . Soy beans should be eaten when it is fermented to avoid toxins.  Tofu is not fermented and intake of this should minimized.  Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats. Vegetable proteins, eaten throughout the day, in a well-balanced vegetarian diet are each "complete" in their own way and will be metabolized quite completely, finding their way to the liver and other tissues where they will be used as needed. While animal protein contain more saturated fats and cholesterol.
     
  6. Include organically grown foods in the diet. Chemically laden food is a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs and cause premature aging.
     
  7. Drink at least 10 glasses of water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps you to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  8. Milk and other dairy products should be avoided ,  especially for the allergy prone individuals because they are mucous-forming and have a high potential for allergic reactions. As you age, you do not have the enzymes necessary to break down the milk sugars. Therefore, you may experience gas, bloating, nausea, diarrhea and often gall bladder distress. However plain low fat yogurt is beneficial for the intestinal tracts. The beneficial bacteria found in the yogurt maintain the health of the intestine by promoting absorption of nutrients, which are crucial for anti-aging.
     
  9. One of the best ways to ensure removal of toxins in your home water supplies is to buy good water filters, not only for the kitchen sink but for the tub and shower as well. Most of the nation's water supply is contaminated by agricultural run-off, manufacturing waste, fluoride, chlorine and other chemicals and chemical by-products.
     
  10. Avoid drinking coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they are toxic for your body, which cause oxidative damages that result in premature aging.
     
  11. If you are over-weight and need to lose weight, the best way to lose weight is eliminate saturated fat and excessive protein and sugar from your diet. These foods create free radicals in your liver, while making you feel sluggish.
     
  12. Eat 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day, so that you blood vessels maintain the elasticity as in the young.

 

TAKE YOUR TIME

Diet habits are formed in a lifetime. Give yourself 1-2 years to be completely comfortable with the Anti-Aging Diet. Only change a little of your overall habits at a time. Be happy with the progress and be proud of making the change. Start with following the anti-aging diet plan only 1 meal a day, especially if you have not been on a plan with a lot of vegetables before. Gradually move to 1 meal a day. Reward yourself with a slight indulgence once a week or so where you should not feel guilty if you eat whatever you like. It's OK! You're well in your way.

 

ANTI-AGING DIET AND SPECIFIC DISEASES

Heart Disease and Stroke: The Anti-Aging Diet consists of high soluble fibers, which is a component of fruits and vegetables, reduces blood cholesterol and triglyceride, therefore, reduces plague formation in the arteries. It will also decrease blood pressure for those afflicted with High Blood Pressure. For those that are overweight, this diet definitely helps to reduce your weight. By losing weights, blood pressure also will decrease. Therefore The Anti-Aging Diet helps to prevent the development of heart diseases and strokes.

Diabetes: The Anti-Aging Diet is high in complex carbohydrates, a long strand of glucose molecule and it will take hundreds of chemical reactions to break and produce individual glucose so that the body can use it. Therefore the blood sugar level increases slowly and remains steady. There is no need for the pancreas to produce a surge of insulin all at once. This will prevent the premature hardening of the arteries and incidences of heart diseases, the side effects of diabetes, can be decreased. Diabetes are often overweight also, and this diet definitely helps to reduce weight. Being overweight causes an increase of insulin production by the pancreas.

Cancer: Americans die of breast, colon, and prostate cancers at rates 5-30 times higher than people in many parts of the world. Poor eating habits may account for one third of all cancer. Researches have shown that what you eat can trigger cancer development. you put an average of 2 pounds of food in your body every day. It is your greatest contact with possible carcinogens other than the environment. The Anti-Aging Diet consists of strong antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, which battle the free radicals in the body and prevent cancer cells growth.

 

Diet Tips for Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Reduce overall fat , especially trans- fat commonly found in fried food so the overall calories is immediately reduced, as a result, weight loss is inevitable. Use oils or foods that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive oil, rapeseeds oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil, for they lower insulin requirements.
     
  2. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar from your diet, as they increase the blood sugar immediately. Substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Beware that sweet snacking is a frequent behavior at times of stress. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet, as they are low in calories, high in fibers, and many other minerals and vitamins which are essential for keeping the body healthy.
     
  3. Watch the glycemic Index (a rating system to measure food's effects on blood sugar levels) of the carbohydrates that you consume. The higher the glycemic index, the more pronounced the food will have on your blood sugar, and scientific studies have shown that leads to excessive food intake in obese subjects.
     
  4. Eat a variety of complex carbohydrates and vegetables but avoid  grain products like rice, wheat and corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level.
     
  5. Celery, Bitter Melon, Onion, Garlic, Globe Artichoke, Jerusalem Artichoke, Asparagus and Spinach are vegetables that alleviate Diabetes Mellitus.
     
  6. You do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as legumes tofu. Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month). Legumes are excellent insulin regulators.
     
  7. Drink at least 8 glasses of water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  8. Avoid high allergenic foods such as milk and other  dairy products. In moderate amount, soy milk and soy product such as tofu cheese is recommended as soy is full of isoflavonoids, which increase HDL cholesterol and counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. Large amount of soy product is not recommended unless the soy is fermented such as miso and tempeh.
     
  9. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  10. Avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they are toxic for your body.
     
  11. Split your menu into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day.
     
  12. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

Diet Tips for Lowering Blood Pressure

  1. Decrease or remain the same overall salt intake, provided that water intake is  10-15 glasses a day if you have a healthy heart. If your water consumption cannot increase, then reduce salt intake. Avoid adding table salt. Try not to cook with salt, soy sauce. Use salt substitutes or herbs and seasonings that add fragrance and taste to the foods.
     
  2. Reduce overall fat, especially trans-fat commonly found in fried food.  Use oil or food that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive, rapeseed oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil. Reports have shown that Omega-3 fatty acid helps lower blood pressure in people afflicted with Hypertension. Avoid polyunsaturated and saturated oil, as they increase blood pressures.
     
  3. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar (which has been shown to increase blood pressure ) from your diet and substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet. Watermelon, Banana and Cumquats are especially effective in lowering blood pressure.
     
  4. Eat a variety of complex carbohydrates and, vegetables but avoid  grain products like rice, wheat and corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level. Celery, spinach, onion, and garlic are especially effective in lowering blood pressure.
     
  5. We do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as legumes or tofu. Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month). Many studies indicated that fish lowers blood pressure in people afflicted with Hypertension.
     
  6. Drink at least 10-15  glasses of water every day  if you heart is healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body. High blood pressure may be the end result of generalized constriction of blood vessels as the body's try to compensating for chronic dehydration.
     
  7. Avoid high allergenic foods such as milk and other dairy products. In moderate amount, soy milk and soy product such as tofu cheese is recommended as soy is full of isoflavonoids, which increase HDL cholesterol and counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. Large amount of soy product is not recommended unless the soy is fermented such as miso. 
  8. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically-laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  9. Avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they increase Blood Pressure.
     
  10. Split into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day. And the arteries will maintain its elasticity longer. 
  11. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

Diet Tips for Lowering Cholesterol

  1. Reduce overall fat, especially trans-fat commonly found in fried foods and margarine. Use oil or food that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive, rapseed oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil. Omega-3 fatty acid increase serum HDL Cholesterol. Avoid polyunsaturated and saturated oil, as they increase the cholesterol and triglycerides levels.  Stay with mono-unsaturated fat such as olive oil for all cooking needs.
     
  2. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar from your diet and substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet. Fruits are filled with pectin and fiber, which work wonders in lower serum cholesterol.
     
  3. Eat a variety of complex carbohydrates and  vegetables but not  grain products like rice, wheat and corn. Oats and Oat bran are especially helpful in lowering total serum cholesterol.
     
  4. We do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as legumes or tofu. Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month). Fish is high in omega-3-fatty acid, which increase serum HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol. A scientific research has shown that taking 100 grams of almonds a day for three weeks can also lower total serum cholesterol by 7%.
     
  5. Drink at least 10  glasses of water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  6. Avoid high allergenic foods such as milk and other dairy products. In moderate amount, soy milk and soy product such as tofu cheese is recommended as soy is full of isoflavonoids, which increase HDL cholesterol and counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. Large amount of soy product is not recommended unless the soy is fermented such as miso. 
     
  7. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically-laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  8. Avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they increase serum cholesterol and triglycerides for your body.
     
  9. Split the menu into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day. And the arteries will maintain its elasticity longer. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

Diet Tips for Preventing Cancer

  1. Reduce overall fat intake, especially trans-fat commonly found in fried food which has been shown to promote cancer.  Use oil or food that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive, olive oil, rapeseed oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil. Avoid polyunsaturated and saturated oil, as they inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
     
  2. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar from your diet and substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet. Fruits are filled with fibers and vitamin C and many other minerals and vitamins, which are important antioxidants that help your body rid the free radical.
     
  3. Eat a variety of complex carbohydrates and  vegetables but avoid grain products like rice, wheat and corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level. Scientific studies indicated that grain ultimately turns into sugar which in turn enhances cancer cell development. 
     
  4. We do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such a beans or fermented soy such as miso.  Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month). Fish is high in omega-3-fatty acid, which, inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
     
  5. Drink at least 8 glasses of filtered water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  6. One of the best ways to ensure removal of toxins in your home water supplies is to buy good water filters, not only for the kitchen sink but for the tub and shower as well because most of the nation's water supply is contaminated by agricultural run-off, manufacturing waste, fluoride, chlorine and other chemicals and chemical by-products.
     
  7. Use fermented soy products such as miso and tempeh instead of dairy products because soy is full of isoflavonoids which counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. However, toufu is not fermented and therefore, intake of this should be limited.
     
  8. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  9. Avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they are toxic for your body.
     
  10. Try splitting the menu suggested here into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day. And the arteries will maintain its elasticity longer. 
  11. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

Diet Tips for Preventing or Reversing Heart Disease

  1. Reduce overall fat, especially trans-fat commonly found in fried food. Use oil or food that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive, rapeseed oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil. Avoid polyunsaturated and saturated oil, as they increase the cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Stay with mono-unsaturated fat such as olive oil for all your cooking needs.
     
  2. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar from your diet and substitute complex carbohydrates such as green leafy vegetables that have lots of fiber. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet. Fruits are filled with fibers and vitamin C and many other minerals and vitamins which are essential for keeping the body youthful. Arthrosclerosis has been linked to chronic deficiency of vitamin C, and humans cannot make vitamin C internally.
     
  3. Eat a variety of complex carbohydrates and vegetables but no grain products like rice, wheat or corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level.
  4. We do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as miso ( fermented soy). Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month). Fish is high in omega-3-fatty acid, which increase serum HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol.
     
  5. Drink at least 10 glasses of filtered water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  6. Avoid high allergenic foods such as milk and other dairy products. In moderate amount, soy milk and soy product such as tofu cheese is recommended as soy is full of isoflavonoids, which increase HDL cholesterol and counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. Large amount of soy product is not recommended unless the soy is fermented such as miso. 
     
  7. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically-laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  8. Avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, sodas and anything else that contain caffeine because they increase serum cholesterol and triglycerides for your body.
     
  9. Split the menu into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day. And the arteries will maintain its elasticity longer. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

Diet Tips for weight Control

  1.  Reduce overall fat, especially trans-fat commonly found in fried food so the overall calories is immediately reduced, as a result, weight loss is inevitable. Use oil or food that are high in Omega-3 fatty acid, such as olive oil, rapeseed oil, flaxseed and flaxseed oil.
     
  2. Eliminate refined carbohydrates and sugar from your diet and substitute complex carbohydrates that have lots of fiber. Beware that sweet snacking is a frequent behavior at times of stress. Fruit should be the major source of sweetness in your diet, as they are low in calories, high in fibers, and many other minerals and vitamins which are essential for keeping the body youthful and healthy.
     
  3. Watch the glycemic Index (a rating system to measure food's effects on blood sugar levels) of the carbohydrates that you consume. The higher the glycemic index, the more pronounced the food will have on your blood sugar, and scientific studies have shown that leads to excessive food intake in obese subjects.
     
  4. Eat a variety of carbohydrates and  vegetables but no grain products such as rice, wheat and corn. These foods are the building blocks of good health and they keep the blood sugar at a constant level. Grains turn into sugar once inside the body . Sugar translates into calorie intake and increased body weight.
     
  5. You do not need vast amounts of protein in your diet. Try meat substitutes or non-animal protein foods such as tofu. Eat more fish, chicken and very little red meats (12-16 oz. per month), for fish and chicken are less fattening.
     
  6. Drink at least 10-15 glasses of filtered water every day in order to remain healthy. Water helps us to get rid of the toxins and unwanted waste materials from your body.
     
  7. Avoid high allergenic foods such as milk and other dairy products. In moderate amount, soy milk and soy product such as tofu cheese is recommended as soy is full of isoflavonoids, which increase HDL cholesterol and counteract Estrogen Hormones' Cancer causing potential. Large amount of soy product is not recommended unless the soy is fermented such as miso. 
     
  8. Include organically grown foods in your diet. Chemically-laden foods are a burden to the body. Even small amounts of toxin accumulate and eventually wear down the body organs.
     
  9. Avoid drinking alcohol, which impairs the ability of persons afflicted with obesity to achieve weight loss
     
  10. Split the menu into 6 small meals per day, rather than the traditional 3 square meals. In this way, you will maintain a balance in your blood sugar and the level of nutrients in your body throughout the day.
     
  11. Eat like a king at breakfast, a prince at lunch and a pauper at dinner. Breakfast is the most important meal. It provides you nutrients to start the day and you have all day to burn off the calories. Dinner should be the lightest meal because there is less time to wash off the calories and digestion.

 

CARBOHYDRATE AND ANTI-AGING

The main function of carbohydrate is to produce energy. They are the main energy sources in the body. They maintain the blood sugar level. Adequate carbohydrates spare the protein. The body needs protein to build cells. If you do not eat an adequate amount of carbohydrate your body will have divert the protein in your diet to make energy. This prevents the protein to be used for its major purposes of building body tissues, enzymes, hormones etc. Unrefined carbohydrates-rich foods are also high in vitamins, minerals and fiber.

Carbohydrate plays a major role in supplying the brain and body with power. The body cannot supply enough carbohydrate on its own and therefore it needs to come from food.

 

Types of Carbohydrate

There are two different kinds of carbohydrates: simple and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are commonly known as sugars. Sources of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, candies and other sweets, soda and bakery goods. These foods provide empty calories, which are calories that supply no vitamins and minerals and should therefore be minimized. Complex carbohydrates include all the starches, which consist of long strands of glucose molecules and fiber that are indigestible. Foods that contain complex carbohydrates are grains, cereals, bread and starchy vegetables like potato, corn, peas and beans. Complex carbohydrates contain many essential nutrients and increase the glycogen stores more efficiently than sugars or simple carbohydrates.

 

Carbohydrates and Anti-aging

What happens when you eat carbohydrates? The carbohydrate get digested in the mouth and then in the stomach and it is absorbed into the blood stream in the form of glucose. So your blood sugar increases and the pancreas produces insulin. The insulin will transport the glucose into the cells and the cells use glucose for energy or stored them as glycogen or fat, finally the blood sugar returns to normal level. Now if you eat complex carbohydrates, it can take 1-4 hours to completely digest and absorb all glucose. Remember that complex carbohydrate is a long strand of glucose molecule and it will take hundreds of chemical reactions to break and produce individual glucose so that the body can use it. Therefore the blood sugar level increases slowly and remains steady. A candy bar or simple sugar is okay for a short period of time, but if you are trying to maintain your blood sugar, complex carbohydrates are much more effective than simple sugars. This will prevent the premature hardening of the arteries, therefore retarding the aging process.

There are other reasons why complex carbohydrates are so important. Firstly, they contain insoluble fiber, which prevents constipation and is associated with reduced colon cancer. It also helps prevent hemorrhoids. Fibers make large, soft stool. Secondly, there is the soluble fiber, which is a component of complex carbohydrates that reduces blood cholesterol. Thirdly, complex carbohydrates are also low in fat but high in nutrient density. What it means is that for every calorie of carbohydrate ingested you get more nutrients. They are high in essential vitamins and minerals that are hard to get in other foods. By not having enough complex carbohydrates in your diet, you may have aging related health problems and nutritional problems such as high serum cholesterol, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and some forms of cancer.

 

How much carbohydrate do you need?

50-55% of your calories from your diet should come from carbohydrates. About 45-50% come from complex carbohydrates and 5-10% from simple carbohydrates. If you perform heavy weight training or heavy training, carbohydrate intake should range from 7-10 grams per 10 kilogram of body weight per day of up to 55-70% carbohydrates. Athletes who train exhaustively on successive days or compete in more prolonged endurance events would benefit from a diet that contain 65-70% of total calories from carbohydrates. Where are you going to get these carbohydrates? You can get it from legumes, potatoes, beans, grains, pasta, rice, cereal, pretzels, spaghetti and corn.

 

FIBER AND ANTI-AGING

Fiber plays a very important role in nutrition and is very beneficial in many aspects of health and anti-aging. First, it maintains weight. A diet rich in fiber can promote fat loss if fiber foods replace fats and sweets. Fiber has fewer calories per gram than fats. They are not easily converted to fat and they have the ability to expand up to ten times their weight and size in the stomach. Thus they make you feel full and satisfied for longer period. Fiber also satisfies your appetite by slowing down calorie absorption and keeping energy levels up.

There are two kinds of fiber. The difference is their food sources and how they affect the body. Foods containing water insoluble fibers such as wheat bran, wheat germ, whole grain, cracked bran, brown rice are not digested and they add bulk to the diet. They are stool softening fibers and improve bowel regularity because they speed up the food through the intestines. Soluble fibers such as foods in the legume family, seeds, raw and dry fruits, raw and cooked vegetables become gel-like substances during digestion and delay the time food goes through the intestines. They thus help to keep glucose levels regulated and help to lower cholesterol level.

It is impertinent to maintain high level of fiber in the Anti-Aging Diet. For it keeps the digestive and cardiovascular system healthy.

 

PROTEIN AND ANTI-AGING

Proteins are building blocks of the body. They are a part in every cell of the body. Muscles, organs, and chemical regulators of the body are made up of protein.

The major functions of protein include:

Maintenance: growth of new tissue and repair of existing tissues.

Enzyme production: An enzyme is a catalyst that is required for many actions in your body.

Hormone production: These are chemical messages secreted by organs to regulate the body's activities, i.e. insulin that regulate the blood sugar.

Immune function: Every cell of the immune system requires protein.

Fluid / electrolyte balance: Protein helps maintain the body's fluid balance. Fluid is present in three main areas of the body: the space inside the blood vessels, the spaces within the cells and the spaces between the cells. Proteins are large molecules that attract water. By keeping a certain number of proteins in fluid, the correct amount of water is kept in each space.

Acid/Base balance: The acidity (pH) of the body is maintained within a very narrow range. Proteins are involved in preventing the body from becoming too acidic or too basic.

Transport: Proteins are involved in moving nutrients in the blood stream from one organ to another. They also move nutrients and substances across membranes.

Energy: Protein, either from the diet or from reserves, is used for energy when the body lacks sufficient carbohydrate and fat. The muscles are the largest protein reserves in the body.

Others: Proteins are involved in blood clotting and making connective tissue such as scar tissues, bones and tendons.

Proteins are made up of individual units called amino acids. There are 20 different ones that the body needs to make protein for body functions. Nine of them are called "essential" which means the body will not make them so you have to get them from the diet or you will not be able to make any protein. The body will make the other eleven.

Amino acids differ from carbohydrate and fat in that they have nitrogen as part of their structure. A protein is made by linking up many amino acids, usually 100-300 per protein molecule so each amino acid may appear in the protein molecule many times.

 

How much protein is required?

The normal amount of protein required by sedentary people is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. That is, take your weight in pounds and divide by 2.2 to get the weight in kilogram and then multiply that by 0.8. Intakes of protein more than 15-20% of total calories or 2 grams per kilogram of body weight cannot be justified on scientific basis because intakes above 15-20% or 2 grams per kilogram of body weight are either burned for energy to support activity or are converted to fat.

Training athletes need 1.4-1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. This extra protein goes to increase muscle weight. Runners and other endurance athletes also need more protein because on long workouts, their muscles burn some proteins. These athletes need 1.2-1.4 grams of protein per kilogram body weight per day. The protein goal is about 15%-25% of total calorie intake. Excess proteins can put a stress to kidneys and liver because these organs have to work extra hard for the body to rid the unwanted nitrogen byproducts. The kidneys have to flush out toxins in urine and studies have shown that excessive proteins may cause the loss of calcium in urine, which put women at risk for osteoporosis.

 

Where do you get protein?

Protein is found in meat, fish, chicken, egg, cheese, milk, legumes and beans. There are small quantities of proteins occurring in bread, pasta and cereal also.

People wonder if they get enough protein in their diet. Just think, one simple ounce of meat or chicken or fish will deliver about 7-10 grams of protein. And the recommended daily allowance for an average size person is only about 50-80 grams a day. If so, it is very easy to get your regular full supply of protein throughout the day.

 

Types of Food

Grams of Protein

One egg

6

A cooked lean hamburger patty 3 ounces

20

Half a roast chicken breast without skin

26

One slice of cheese

7

One cup of low fat yogurt

10

One cup of milk

8

One cup of baked beans or lentils

16

One cup of spaghetti or pasta

5

Two slices of bread

6

Half a cup of cottage cheese

14

If you have an adequate intake of food in general, you will more than likely have an adequate protein intake. If you consume too much protein more than the body needs, it will be converted to fat or it will be excreted from the body. In addition, other problems can occur from taking an excessive amount of protein, such as dehydration, damage to both the liver and kidneys and the promotion and calcium excretion, which depletes the bones of the achieved mineral.

 

Protein and Carbohydrate Interaction for Anti-Aging

Carbohydrates are digested in about 2 hours. Protein takes longer to digest . When the two are combined or eaten together, protein actually slows down the digestion of carbohydrates and energy from carbohydrates is released more slowly. It actually slows down the release of glucose from carbohydrates into the blood stream thus eating protein-rich food with high carbohydrate food stabilizes the glucose that could otherwise lead to hunger. This keeps you feeling energetic and satisfied until the next meal. In addition, carbohydrates are energy. They spare proteins from being used as energy so protein can concentrate to be used to build and repair tissues.

 

FAT

Fat is the chief storage form of energy in the body. Excess calories are stored in fat cells. Stored fat cushions your body's organs. All organs, heart, kidneys, liver have fat pads around them for protection.

Cell membranes have fats as part of their structure. Fat in your diet help us absorb some of the vitamins that can only be carried in fat These are the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Dietary fats are also used to produce hormones. It is also necessary for healthy skin. Fats add flavor to foods. The biggest problem of cutting down fat is that food doesn't seem to taste as good.

Fat is therefore a necessary macronutrient which the body must have. There are good fats ( mono-unsaturated fats like olive oil) and bad fats  ( trans-fat is worse). Learning which is good to take and which is bad to avoid is critical.

 

Fatty Acids and Kinds of Fat

Fatty acids are the individual units of fat, which combine to form fat or an oil. Fatty acid molecules vary in their number of carbon atoms. They are, either 8,10,12,14,16,18,20 or 22 carbon atoms long. Fats and oils have more than one fatty acid and the combination is what determines saturated and unsaturated status of fats. Fatty acids are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated. These terms refer to the structure of the molecule - specifically, the number and location of the shared electrons (called bonds) that link atoms in the chain - like molecular structure. Chemically, saturated fatty acids have no double bonds (two share electrons together) in their chains of carbon atoms. Monounsaturates have one double bond and polyunsaturates have more than one double bond.

Saturated fats are found in all foods that come from animal sources such as meat, eggs, butter, milk, cheese and creams. It is also found in oils such as coconut and palm kernel. They increase the LDL cholesterol and pose the highest risk for heart disease and cancer.

Monounsaturated fat has one double bond and it is liquid at room temperature. They are found primarily in nuts and vegetable oils such as olive and canola oil. These are often referred to as good fats because studies have shown that they have no effect on serum cholesterol, they increase the HDL (good) cholesterol levels and protect against heart disease. An example is omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown to reduce blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improve cardiovascular health and decrease risks of heart disease, particularly atherosclerosis. These omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish and other marine animals.

Polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond. It is liquid at room temperature. It consists of Omega-6 fatty acids found mostly in plants. And they are found in oil such as sunflower, safflower and corn oils. When intake of omega-6 is too high, a decrease in immune functions and an increase in blood clotting and inflammation occur. When more omega-3 fatty acids are eaten to balance out the omega-6 fatty acids, immune functions are enhanced and there is less blood clotting and inflammation.

Trans-fat are fat that is often made from poly-unsaturated fat through a chemical process that allows it to be in solid form in room temperature. This is the kind of fat commonly used in frying of foods such as French fries and cookies. Trans-fat is the worse type of fat. They are the most damaging to the body. Try to avoid trans-fat at all cost.

 

Different Forms of Fats

Fat comes in various forms. There are three forms  in the body.

The first form is triglycerides. Triglycerides are found both in animal and plant foods. Most of the fat consumed in the average diet is in the form of triglycerides. This is the form of fat that is stored in the body also. Triglycerides can either be saturated or unsaturated. Triglycerides are made of one glycerol that is a carbohydrate molecule combines with or links with three fatty acids. Fatty acids, which you have talked about earlier, consist of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. The glycerol part of triglycerides makes it soluble in blood so it can move through the blood stream. Fats are not soluble in blood, they will not be transported in the blood stream unless they have a protein or carbohydrate carrier. Thus triglycerides are the form in which you find fats in the blood stream. High blood levels of triglycerides can be a problem. It will build up in the arteries and contribute to atherosclerosis or heart disease. High serum triglycerides may be caused not only by high fat diet but by excessive calories. Excess carbohydrates or proteins are converted to fat in the liver, which converts them to triglycerides to transport the fat to be stored.

The second form of fat is phospholipids. Phospholipids allow the passage of fat-soluble substances such as vitamins and hormones to get in and out of the cells. The best known member of the phopholipids family is lecithin that can be found in oatmeal, soy beans, cauliflower, peanuts, eggs, milk and chocolate. Many studies have suggested that lecithin may provide other health benefits ranging from improving memory to preventing liver damage from alcohol.

The third form of fat is cholesterol. Cholesterol comes from animal products. The body has problems both in transporting fats and digesting them. Fats are not soluble in water so your body provides special vehicles to transport them. They are called the lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The LDLs contain large amounts of cholesterol and are responsible for depositing cholesterol in the artery walls, which lead to deadly diseases such as heart disease and strokes. For this reason, they are called the "bad cholesterol". Exercising (strength training and cardiovascular exercise) can lower LDL cholesterol, decreasing body fats stores, decreasing saturated fats and/or replacing saturated fats in diet by monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.

HDL or high density lipoprotein contains more protein than cholesterol. These HDL are responsible for removing cholesterol from the cells in the arteries and transporting it back to the liver for removal from the body. People with high levels of HDL have reduced chances of heart disease. Thus HDL is known as the "good cholesterol". A recent study shows that those who ran just 8 miles a week (2 miles a day, 4 times a week), have an increase in HDL cholesterol.

 

Fats and Anti-Aging Diet

The Anti-Aging Diet principle source of fat is olive oil. Olive oil should always replace, and not added to other sources of fat, especially butter ( better than margarine which contain trans-fat) . The value of using olive oil in preference to other plant oils, particularly those high in polyunsaturated fats is based on several considerations. One, high intake of linoleic acid, the main polyunsaturated fat in many vegetable oils, may compete with omega-3 fatty acids in biochemical processes, hence the tendency of blood clotting. Two, some research has indicated that diet high in monounsaturated fat is less likely to lead to LDL cholesterol oxidation. This may reduce atherosclerosis. Three, in animal studies, diets high in polyunsaturated fats promote the development of tumors.

 

Fat and weight Control

The average person has 30-40 billion fat cells. This fluctuates widely in size depending on the amount of fat they contain. Each of us is born with a genetically predetermined capacity to produce fat cells, which makes up your body fat. The primary role of fat in your body is a reserve for energy. The problem occurs when you consume more energy than you expend. When this happens, your predetermined fat cells not only increase in volume, they also multiply. Once a new fat cell is created, it's yours for life. This is the primary reason why it is difficult to lose weight once you have gained it. A person with more predetermined fat cells has greater difficulty in maintaining lower body weight than a person with fewer fat cells. So the goal is to stop gaining more fat cells because you can't get rid of them.

A fat cell's main function is storing energy for future use. It also serves as a buffer that keeps excess blood sugar or glucose and fat out of the blood stream. When fat cells are ballooned, they can no longer prevent harmful substances from entering circulation. By continuing to take more energy than you expend, you fill up the new fat cells. Then even more fats and sugar return to your blood stream. This causes more insulin to be produced, which cause your body to make more fat cells.

 

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

Many vitamins and minerals are anti-oxidants, which have been shown to fight infections and diseases. For Anti-Aging purposes, nutritional supplementation in doses several times higher than the recommended daily allowance is most beneficial.

 

Vitamins

Vitamins are organic compounds that the body must have to perform chemical reactions. There are no calories in vitamins and they are only needed in minute amounts to work. They are indispensable to body functions. Vitamins can be either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body and they are excreted in urine if taken in excess. These are Vitamin C, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6) and cobalamine (B12) and folate. The next group of vitamins, Vitamin A, D, E and K, is the fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins need fat to be absorbed. They are stored in the liver and fat cells of the body. If you take too much of these vitamin supplements, you can have a toxic reaction. Humans in particular cannot make certain vitamins , such as vitamin C.

 

Minerals

Minerals are inorganic substances that act much like vitamins. you need even fewer minerals than vitamins. Minerals are naturally occurring. It is involved in all body functions and it is essential to life. Minerals are divided into 2 categories, major and trace. All of these are present in your body, if only in minute amounts. The major minerals are calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and sulfur. The trace or ultra-trace minerals are chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium and zinc.

 

ANTI-OXIDANTS

Anti-oxidants play a key role in fighting free radicals, a form of oxidation that weaken cells and wear down natural defenses. Free radicals are atoms or molecules that are lacking in one or more in paired electrons and will search for healthy cells to steal the electrons from. This causes other cells to become free radicals and this continues like a wild game of tag, eventually causing tissue and organ damage. This can deteriorate your natural defenses. Anti-oxidants have the ability to give up extra electrons to neutralize free radicals without becoming one themselves and thus assist in cell health while fighting cell damage, sickness and disease. Anti-oxidants are Vitamin A, C, E, beta-carotene, selenium and many others.

 

WATER

Water makes up about 60% of the body weight in adults. It is involved in all metabolic processes. It helps everything from electrolyte balance to hydration, digestion, metabolism, kidney health, lower incidence of urinary infection and protein synthesis. Without water, you will die. When you don't take enough of it, your performance and results will suffer. Water carries nutrients throughout the body and transports waste products away from it. Water can also be found in your joints as part of the body's natural lubricant. In addition, water aids in the body's temperature regulation and serves as a solvent for vitamins, minerals and amino acids, glucose and many other small molecules.

There is water in many of the foods you eat, especially fruits and vegetables, which contain 50-90% water. Many of the beverages that you drink, like milk and juice, contain about 85% water but this is still not enough! Your body needs a minimum of at least 80 ounces of additional water each day. This means, you have to drink 8 10-ounce glasses of water a day.

 

Carbohydrates and Exercise

Carbohydrates are the ideal fuel for muscular work. Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver. Liver glycogen is used to maintain blood sugar, which in turn fuels the brain, nervous system and other cells. Muscle glycogen fuels muscle cells during exercise. Muscle glycogen and fat supply energy during endurance activity. When exercising hard, there is a continual loss in glycogen from the active skeletal muscle during the prolonged exercise. When the glycogen stores become depleted, the athlete will not be able to exercise intensely and will experience fatigue. Chronic fatigue often limits an athlete's ability to comply with a progressive training program and subsequently to compete at maximal potential. If you do not eat enough carbohydrates to refill the stores that are depleted in each workout, you may not have enough carbohydrates available during subsequent workouts. Therefore, eating enough carbohydrates during endurance exercise can postpone fatigue and prolong peak performance. A high carbohydrate diet can raise the initial muscle glycogen concentration and thus there will be a greater time prior to exhaustion. Diet provides the body with the needed fuels while training promotes the muscles to store more carbohydrate and help to improve the body's utilization of the fuel. More muscle glycogen will help increase endurance.

 

Protein and Exercise

There is a general misunderstanding about protein needs for athletes. Many believe that large quantities of protein foods are necessary to enhance muscle growth. Amino acid supplementation is not necessary even for body builders. It is training techniques and genetics that are the critical determinants of muscle size. Extra protein in the diet in the form of food or amino acid pills beyond what your body demands for rebuilding and repair doesn't go to make extra muscles. Protein cannot be stored for later use. The extra protein is broken down and stored as fat or used as energy. Protein is the toughest nutrient to digest. your body expends a lot of energy just breaking down high protein foods

Training athletes need 1.4-1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. This extra protein goes to increase muscle weight. Runners and other endurance athletes also need more protein because on long workouts, their muscles burn some proteins. These athletes need 1.2-1.4 grams of protein per kilogram body weight per day. The protein goal is about 15%-25% of total calorie intake. Moderate exercises need additional 10% protein above the recommended 0.8 gram. An athlete in training may need 25-50% more than the 0.8 gram per kilogram body weight per day. Excess proteins can put a stress to kidneys and liver because these organs have to work extra hard for the body to rid the unwanted nitrogen byproducts. The kidneys have to flush out toxins in urine and studies have shown that excessive proteins may cause the loss of calcium in urine, which put women at risk for osteoporosis.

 

Creatine and Sports Performance

Athletes could possibly gain benefits by being able to train longer at a higher exercise intensity when using creatine supplements. Creatine is a powerful ergogenic aid that plays an important role in energizing the muscle and may be of greatest benefit to individuals involved in repeated, short burst sprints. Creatine is an amino acid made in your body and stored in your muscles. It is made from arginine and glycine by the liver and the pancreas. It is also found in meat, milk and fish. The energy that you burn is called adenosine triphosphate, ATP. ATP is stored in the muscle cells and produce energy when the body changes the molecule to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate). Muscle fatigue occurs when the supply of ADP runs low. Since the body has a relatively low supply of ADP, it needs to convert the ADP back to ATP, creatine monohydrate helps the body to convert ADP to ATP, thus providing more energy to the muscles. Using that fuel more efficiently speeds up the muscle recovery rate and delays fatigue.

Studies have demonstrated a positive effect on performance with an intake of 20 grams of creatine daily for 5 days (5 times fat, 4 times daily). Human muscles appear to have an upper limit of creatine storage. Individuals with low creatine storage stores prior to creatine ingestion appear to achieve the most pronounced increase of muscle creatine following creatine intake. Creatine will be of little benefit to someone with an already high concentration of muscle creatine or to an individual taking high doses of creatine for many weeks. Creatine ingestion will not increase muscle stores of this compound beyond the normal natural limit. Ingestion of large doses will be a waste of money. Muscle creatine stores can be maintained at a high level if the regiment of 20 grams per day for 5 days is followed by continued supplementation at lower doses of 2 grams per day. It is estimated that muscle creatine stores will decline very slowly following creatine intake and it will still be elevated 2-3 months after the intake of 20 grams per day for 5 days. weight gain and the possibility of dehydration is an issue when taking creatine. Some athletic trainers see an increase in muscle cramp and muscle injury.

 

Fat and Endurance Exercise

The most important role of fat is to spare carbohydrates, which are limited in supply during long duration and low intensity exercise. Fat is a valuable metabolic fuel for muscle activity. Endurance training significantly increases the ability to utilize fat. During aerobic exercise, fat serves as the preferred fuel source for muscle activity. Consuming a high fat diet will result in a larger proportion of fats used during exercise but this limits the amount of carbohydrate storage, which ultimately limits endurance. Therefore, high dietary fat intake should be avoided. Also, too much fat can lead to heart disease, obesity, cancer and other health problems. So fat intake for athletes should be kept at around  30% of total calories.

 

Water and Exercise

Athletes should consume anywhere from 90-120 ounces or more per day, depending on their activity level and weight. On the average, you lose about 4 cups of water per hour of exercise. On a hot or humid day, this can be doubled to 2 quarts or 8 cups of water. This water loss can quickly trigger fatigue and hinder performance.

Of all the places in your body, water is found in highest concentration in metabolically active tissues like muscle and is in lowest amounts in relatively inactive tissues like fat and skin. The electrical stimulation of muscle cells to contract is due to the exchange of electrolyte minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and magnesium), dissolve in water across the nerves and muscle cell membrane. If you are low in water and/or electrolytes, muscle strength and control are youakened. In fact, a loss of 2-4% of your body weight in water can cut your strength training workout by as much as 21% and your aerobic power by 48%. An athlete can become dehydrated in as little as 30 minutes. Dehydration occurs when fluid (sweat) loss exceeds 1% body weight. During any form of exercise, working muscles produce heat, and body temperature rises. Getting rid of this heat requires fluid evaporation from the skin (sweating), which cools the body. When fluid evaporates from the skin, the body, therefore, loses valuable water (as high as 1-2 quarts per hour) during heavy exercise. When the athlete fails to ingest enough fluid and dehydration becomes sufficiently severe, sweating decreases in attempt to conserve body water. As a result, blood thickens, heart rate increases and body temperature rises and you get fatigue, headache, nausea, chills, stomach discomfort and increasing the chance of heat cramps, exhaustion or stroke.

As you exercise, be alert of the following conditions. They will increase your loss of fluid through sweat, which make your body become dehydrated faster:

Temperature: the higher the temperature, the greater your sweat losses.

Intensity: the harder you work out, the greater your sweat losses.

Body size: the larger the athlete, the greater your sweat losses. Male, generally, sweat more than female.

Duration: the longer the workout, the greater your fluid losses.

Fitness: well-trained athletes sweat more.

Exercise blunts the thirst mechanism and so do not rely on thirst as an indicator of dehydration. There are 3 important guidelines for fluid replacement when exercising. The first and most important guideline is to consume 4-7 ounces of water which is about half to three-quarter cup every 10-15 minutes during the exercise session. Second is to consume cold water because cold water empties from the stomach most quickly. Lastly, If the exercise session is less than 90 minutes, then water is the best choice for fluid replacement. But if the exercise continues for more than 90 minutes and is continuous, you may want to drink sports beverages because muscle glycogen has depleted and the body needs a source of carbohydrates for energy.

 

Sport Drinks

When a workout period exceeds 90 minutes, sports drinks can be beneficial because they provide a source of fuel for working muscles, which are depleted and they will speed the absorption of water and glucose from the small intestines. With sports drinks, continued exercise will not deplete muscle glycogen, therefore performance time may be lengthened. Sports drinks can also help reduce recovery time rapidly and restoring glycogen after exercise. Sports drinks are also beneficial when exercising in high heat or humidity, the electrolytes help to enhance fluid absorption.

Sports drinks containing between 14-19 grams of carbohydrate (6-8% carbohydrate) and 50-80 calories to 8-ounce serving are appropriate before or during activities lasting longer than 90 minutes. The carbohydrates and electrolytes can help increase the rate of fluid absorption from the gastro intestinal tract. In long activity, carbohydrates can also delay onset of fatigue.

A sports drink with greater than 10% sugar solution contains too much carbohydrates. Absorption may be slow and nausea, cramps or diarrhea can result. The greater the quantity or concentration of the fluid or beverage you ingest, the slower your stomach will empty its contents, reducing the amount of fluid you are able to absorb. Less fluid absorption means greater risk of dehydration and a higher body temperature. Under these conditions, the performance will suffer. Sugars in soft drinks and fruit juice are more concentrated: 10-15% carbohydrate. They aren't recommended during exercise because of their high sugar content and for soft drinks, their carbonation. Dilute soft drinks and fruit juices to half strength if you drink them during prolonged workouts or competitions.

Select sports drinks that contain glucose, glucose polymeris, moltodexprin or sucrose as the carbohydrate source per 8-ounce serving. Sucrose and glucose have been proven effective in delivering energy and stimulating the rate of fluid absorption. Beverages containing fructose (sugar in fruit) as the only source of carbohydrate may cause abdominal discomfort and is not a good choice for rapid muscle glycogen synthesis.

There is no need to buy sports drinks with extra vitamins. You don't lose vitamins when you sweat and the vitamins you need are supplied easily by a varied diet plan and supplementation aside from those from sports drinks.

Before exercise: drink 8-24 ounces of a sport beverage 2-4 hours before exercise or drink at least 4-8 ounces of sports beverage immediately before exercise.

During exercise: drink 4-8 ounces of a sports beverage every 15-20 minutes after the first 30 minutes of exercise.

After exercise: drink at least 8-16 ounces of fluid. (drink 2 cups of fluid for every pound loss after exercise) Drink 40-60 grams of carbohydrate ASAP or within the first 30 minutes after exercise and at 2-hour intervals up to 4 hours after exercise.

 

Caffeine And Sport Performance

Caffeine is probably the most popular and readily available drug in the world. It occurs naturally in plants and is found in leaves, seed and fruit such as coffee, cocoa beans, tea leaves, and cola nuts. Caffeine acts as a mild stimulant to the nervous system. It increases alertness, attention and mental ability. Caffeine also causes anxiety, gastro-intestinal distress, nervousness, irritability, insomnia and inability to concentrate.

Some studies have shown caffeine intake before exercise can enhance performance while other studies have found caffeine to be of no benefit.

Caffeine is a diuretic that stimulates water loss thereby may increase your chance of dehydration during exercise. Consuming doses greater than 6 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight may cause side effects. The international Olympic committee in United States Olympic Committee has put large doses of caffeine on the banned list. A urinary concentration of 12 micrograms per milliliter of urine represents a positive drug test for caffeine, resulting in athlete's disqualification.

One possible explanation that caffeine ingestion before exercise triggers the product of plasma epinephrine which then stimulates the release of fat into the body, making more fat available as an energy source rather than the limited muscle glycogen stores, thereby delaying the onset of fatigue. Those with bladder problems such as interstitial cystitis, heart disease, glaucoma and cystic breast disease should refrain from caffeine intake.

 

DIET TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS

Optimal nutrition obtained with sound dietary practices that are applied on a continuing basis, not just a few hours before or during competition. Nutritional factors that can conceivably influence performance at almost any stage during training or competition. Performance diet guidelines:

  1. Energy intake that maintains desirable body weight.
     
  2. 6-10 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram body weight per day, which is equal to about 60-70% carbohydrates of total calories. This comes mostly in the form of complex carbohydrates. 6 grams  of carbohydrates per kilogram body weight for 1 hour of training per day.
     
  3. 8 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram body weight for 2 hours of training per day.
     
  4. At least 10 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram body weight for 3 hours of training per day.
     
  5. 10-15% protein or 0.8-2 grams per kilogram body weight per day depending on the type of training. Plant protein and fish are the best sources of protein. Limit the intake of red meats.
     
  6. 20-30% fat. Avoid fried fatty foods and rich desserts which are high in Trans fat. Use olive or canola oil.
     
  7. Plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise to prevent dehydration.

 

MEAL PLANS BEFORE, DURING , AND AFTER EXERCISE

 

Nourishment before Exercise

The goals of the pre-exercise meal are:

a. Prevent low blood sugar and associated symptoms (light-headedness, blurred vision, fatigue and indecisiveness)

b. Prevent feelings of hunger

c. Provide energy for working muscles

The pre-exercise meal is important especially for morning exercise. The body has to draw on the liver supply of glycogen for energy. This supply eventually runs low if you skip breakfast and blood sugar decreases, giving you a hungry, tired feeling. The lowering of fuel supply to the brain can also have a negative effect on your mental power that can further hinder performance. Consuming a meal or at least a light snack, before exercise help to replenish liver glycogen and helps to maintain normal blood sugar levels and endurance.

Complex carbohydrates are ideal because they are quickly digested and absorbed into the blood stream, leaving the stomach quickly so there is less chance of ingestion, indigestion and nausea during the event. Research has shown that food ingested 3-4 hours prior to exercise is used for energy during exercise.

The pre-exercise meal should be:

  1. Low in fat.
     
  2. Try to avoid fat 12 hours before exercise because fat leaves the stomach slowly and may cause a bloated, heavy feeling.
     
  3. Try to avoid high-protein foods right before exercise because proteins require more proteins to digest and also cause an increase in urine output, promoting the loss of needed fluid.
     
  4. Try to avoid high-fiber and gas-forming food; these foods can cause stomach discomfort during the exercise. High-fiber foods are excellent food for general nutrition but are not recommended for the pre-exercise meal.
     
  5. Adequate fluid intake to start 24-36 hours before exercise.
    1. a. Drink at least 8-16 ounces of fluid 2 hours before exercise
    2. b. Drink 8-20 ounces approximately 15 minutes before exercise.
    3. c. Avoid starting a workout thirsty.
    4. d. Liquid should be cool for faster absorption.
    5. e. Make a special effort to drink more water in higher altitude at warmer temperature.

 

Nourishment During Exercise

Goals for nourishment during exercise are:

  1. Replace both muscle glycogen and fluid loss
  2. Maintain normal blood sugar levels
  3. Provide source of energy for the exercising muscles.

Replenishing carbohydrate and fluid throughout exercise that lasts over an hour can postpone fatigue and prolong peak performance and ensure greater stamina by keeping muscle glycogen stores filled. Research has suggested that fatigue can be delayed by as much as 30-60 minutes by eating carbohydrates during exercise 30-60 grams of carbohydrates per hour (120-140 calories) appears to be an optimal range of carbohydrate intake for maintaining or improving performance. Ingesting greater quantities of carbohydrates does not further improve endurance and may, in fact, hinder performance.

During exercise of moderate intensity, blood flow to the stomach is 60-70% of normal, so that athlete can still digest food. You may choose food as a liquid form or solid form.

In addition to replacing carbohydrates, the athlete should be careful to replace fluid loss through sweat. Carbohydrate - containing fluids such as sports drinks or beverages, replace both muscle glycogen and water losses; they are the best choice for both good nutrition and top performance. Sports drinks containing between 14-19 grams of carbohydrate (6-8% carbohydrate) and 50-80 calories per 8-ounce serving are appropriate before or during activities lasting longer than 60 minutes. The carbohydrates and electrolytes can help increase the rate of fluid absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract. Eating solid food or concentrated carbohydrate solutions or gels on a training ride may be necessary to ward off hunger pangs during the ride, to aid in recovery after the ride, and to serve as a way to meet daily calorie needs.

 

Nourishment After Exercise

Goals for nourishment after exercise are :

  1. Replenish carbohydrate (glycogen) stores to maintain exercise performance on a day-to-day basis.
  2. Replace fluid that has been lost during exercise. If you want to be ready for the next day's workout, you must replenish your carbohydrate reserve so that subsequent exercise performance is not impaired.

After the carbohydrate supply has been depleted, it takes 24-48 hours for full recovery. Muscles are most receptive to replacing muscle glycogen within the first 2 hours after a hard workout. Research shows that full recovery can be achieved if carbohydrate intake (40-60 grams) begins immediately after exercise or within the first 30 minutes after exercise, and to continue at 2-hour intervals up to 4 hours. This is especially important if you are working out twice a day. Failure to consume carbohydrate at this time may hinder optimal glycogen recovery and endurance. Research shows that athletes who consume glucose after exercise have a 50% faster rate of glycogen repletion than those who consumed fructose.

Fluid replacement should be at least 8-16 ounce of fluid after exercise per every pound of body weight lost. Only athletes who exercise for more than an hour daily with heavy fluid losses from sweat are at risk for depleting sodium and potassium. Most can replace these electrolytes with the fluids and food they consumed after exercise.

 

Foreword | Introduction | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6
Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Bibliography




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