How Much Vitamin C Should I Take? Dr. Pauling Has The Answer

By: Michael Lam, MD, MPH

How much Vitamin C should I take? Are Vitamin C sources from food enough?Have you ever asked yourself or wondered “How much vitamin c should I take?”. When suffering from variable illnesses or in an effort to prevent illness knowing how much vitamin c should I take is always a common question. After pouring over hundreds of scientific articles on Vitamin C for many years, there is little doubt in my mind that Vitamin C works well in reducing oxidative stress. From cancer to cardiovascular disease, Vitamin C has many curative effects. Though many individuals do, like you, wonder, “How much Vitamin C should I take?”

Dr. Linus Pauling is a two time Nobel Laureate. He was able to answer questions like “how much vitamin c should I take”, and he spent 25 years researching Vitamin C. This is his last interview before death at the age of 93. Dr. Pauling attributed the last 18 years of his life to Vitamin C supplementation. He is called the Father of Vitamin C.

This is a must-read for anyone interested in anti-aging health and longevity, and thosewho are constantly wondering “How much vitamin c should I take?”

Q:Now you are recommending Vitamin C and lysine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

How exactly does lysine help to prevent cardiovascular disease?

Many investigators contributed to showing that lipoprotein A is what is deposited in plaques, not just LDL, but lipoprotein A. If you have more than 20 mg/dI in your blood it begins depositing plaques and atherosclerosis so the question then is what causes lipoprotein A to stick to the wall of the artery and cause these plaques?

Well countless biochemists and other chemists are pretty smart people and they discovered what it is in the wall of the artery that causes lipoprotein A to get stuck to the wall of the artery and form atherosclerotic plaques and ultimately lead to heart disease, strokes and peripheral arterial disease.

The answer is there is a particular amino acid in a protein in the wall of the artery – lysine, which is one of the twenty amino acids that binds the lipoprotein A and causes atherosclerotic plaques to develop. I think it is a very important discovery.

Well, now, if you know that there are residues of lysine, lysyl residues, that hold the lipoprotein A to the wall of the artery and cause hardening of the arteries, then any chemist, any physical chemist would say at once that the thing to do is to prevent that by puffing the amino acid lysine in the blood to greater extent than is normally.

Of course you get lysine normally in your food. Meat in particular contains a good bit of lysine.

And you need lysine to be alive, it is an essential amino acid, you have to get about a gram a day to keep in protein balance, but you can take lysine, pure lysine, a perfectly non toxic substance in food, as 500 mg tablets and that puts extra lysine molecules in the blood. They enter into competition with the lysyl residues on the wall of artery and accordingly count to prevent the lipoprotein A from being deposited or even will work to pull it loose and destroy the atherosclerotic plaques.

Q:Do you think the treatment of lysine and Vitamin C can reverse the atherosclerotic process?

Lysine and vitamin c are thought to be beneficial for atherosclerosis. But How much Vitamin C should I take? And how much Lysine?I think so. Yes. Now I’ve got to the point where I think we can get almost complete control of cardiovascular disease, heart attacks and strokes by the proper use of Vitamin C and lysine. It can prevent cardiovascular disease and even cure it.

If you are at risk of heart disease, or if there is a history of heart disease in your family, if your father or other members of the family died of a heart attack or stroke or whatever, or if you have a mild heart attack yourself then you had better be taking Vitamin C and lysine.

Q:When you published ‘Vitamin C and the Common Cold’ answering peoeple questions surrounding “How much vitamin c should I take?”, what did you expect that to do to medical thinking?

When my book was published near the end of 1970, I thought the medical profession and ordinary people would be pleased. They would be pleased that they no longer were suffering the miseries of the common cold and related diseases and the physicians would be pleased in that they were no longer bothered by patients with the common cold for which they didn’t have any very good treatment anyway, but could concentrate on more serious illnesses.  in addition they coul answer question like “How much vitamin c should I take?”

So I was astonished at the reception that I got when the Professor of Medicine at Mount Sinai College of Medicine wrote to me complaining about my statement that Vitamin C, three grams a day would provide considerable protection against the common cold.

I checked the medical literature to find what evidence there was at that time. I found four controlled trials, recently well conducted trials, involving what I would describe now as rather small amounts of Vitamin C per day of between 200 mg and a 1,000 mg per day. I think that the best one of these four early trials was done by Dr Ritzel, the physician for the school system in Basle, Switzerland.

He gave 270 schoolboys at a winter ski camp either a gram of Vitamin C per day, in a capsule or a placebo. It was a randomized double-blind, controlled trial and with each boy the nurse made sure that the boys swallowed the capsule so that he didn’t have the trouble that other investigators have of the boys, boys especially, not swallowing the capsule.

Instead, trading them back and forth so that you, the investigators, didn’t know which one had received the Vitamin C and which the placebo.

The result was 63 per cent less illness with the common cold for the boys who received the Vitamin C compared to those who received the placebo.

Well, this was a very good trial.

In a paper by a professor of medicine at the University of Helsinki, Finland about Vitamin C and the common cold, he mentioned the publication of my book and said that he had decided to check the medical literature to find out how many studies had been carried out since 1970 on the effectiveness of vitamin C against the common cold.

How much Vitamin C should I take when taking supplementsHe decided that he would accept only studies in which at least 1 gram a day of Vitamin C was given, some of the studies involved 2 grams, perhaps one involved 3 grams a day but mostly they were 1 gram a day of Vitamin C in which a placebo was given to half of the subjects and the studies that were randomized and double-blind so that neither the physicians nor the subjects knew which persons were getting the Vitamin C.

He found 38 clinical trials had been carried out since 1970 satisfying these requirements. 37 of the 38 trials lead to the conclusion that Vitamin C had a protective effect greater than the placebo and a number of these, a dozen of these clinical trials had high statistical significance at 99.9 per cent confidence level and that the result wasn’t just a statistical fluctuation, a chance result.

There is no doubt now that Vitamin C in large doses has value against the common cold.

If you wanting to know “How much vitamin c should I take?” My recommendation is not 1 gram a day, or 2 grams a day of Vitamin C but at the first sign of a cold, take a gram of vitamin C or 2 grams and then an hour later, if the symptoms still exist – if you’re still sneezing, or your nose is running or feel shivery, take another 1 or 2 grams of Vitamin C. Keep doing that until you forget because the symptoms have gone away and this will stop a cold in almost every person who follows the regimen.

Q:When trying to determine how much vitamin c should I take, I often hear the major criticism that anything over 100 mg of Vitamin C is a waste of money and goes down the drain because it’s eliminated by the body.  What do you think about this?

The evidence shows that this is just not true. I myself, twenty years ago or more, read this statement, probably made by Fred Stare, professor then at Harvard School of Public Health, and I decided to check. I was taking 10 grams per day of Vitamin C. I collected my urine for 24 hours and analyzed it myself for the Vitamin C content.

Instead of nearly 10,000 mg being eliminated in the urine, 9850 mg, I found only 1,500 mg, 15 per cent of the dose that I was taking during this trial, so the statement just is not true. Of course, some of the ingested ascorbate remains in the intestinal contents and doesn’t get into the blood stream. It may be as much as a third.

Some evidence indicates that perhaps as much as a third remains in the intestinal contents. Well, this does good, protecting the lower bowel against cancer by destroying carcinogens that are present in the fecal material and also does good because of the laxative effect of bringing water into the bowel so that the volume of the waste material is larger.

There’s also a smaller surface area which helps speed up the process of elimination of this material. The rest of it, two thirds perhaps 6.5 grams when I was taking 10 grams a day, gets into the blood stream but only 1.5 grams is eliminated in the urine.

How much Vitamin C should I take for Megadose Vitamin CSo we can ask what happens to the other 5 grams? The answer I’m sure, in fact we have direct experimental evidence for it, is that Vitamin C is rapidly converted into other substances, oxidation products and these other substances, these oxidation products have been shown to have greater value against cancer than Vitamin C itself.

So if you take large doses of Vitamin C you produce large amounts of these other substances, the value of which is still under investigation. We have been studying it for fifteen years.

Q:Why has your work on nutrients been countered? Is it ignorance, is it prestige, is it money interests? Why is it being suppressed?

Well I have thought about that a great deal. Most scientists in general have accepted my idea and ideas of other pioneers. Of course I took over my ideas mainly from Irwin Stone and other early investigators of Vitamin C. So scientists have said usually “Well Linus Pauling has been right so often in the past, he’s probably right about this too”.

But then an ordinary physician, has the duty of dividing his time and energy for the proper care of his patients. He doesn’t have time to read the literature, the scientific and medical literature, and think about a question such as whether there is something new and significant that has been discovered. He has to rely on medical and nutritional authorities and I blame them for having been lazy and biased, and not really willing to keep up with new developments.

But why are they biased?

Well I decided, 40 or 50 years ago, that when they were trying to understand the action of drugs and also of nutrients, they realized that you give a drug in the amount as large as possible so that its toxicity does not kill a patient in the hope that it will save the patient’s life. And there are certain drugs that have great value in protecting against certain diseases.

There is no doubt that these drugs have great value. Doctors and investigators have worked hard to determine what the proper dose of a drug is. Now with vitamin C for example, I am sure they said we know what Vitamin C does. It keeps people from dying from scurvy and investigators have studied human beings enough to know how much Vitamin C they need to give in order to prevent the development of scurvy.

It isn’t much, just a little pinch each day so they say we know the answer with vitamins just as with drugs. And the answers are the RDAs, 60 mg a day of vitamin C to prevent scurvy, and 2 mg of a day of thiamin, vitamin B1, to prevent beriberi and so on. What they did not do was to ask this question: here is a substance which has no known toxicity, which can be taken in 1000 times the RDA, the amount that stops people developing scurvy, without causing harm to a person.

How much Vitamin C should I take when I have a cold

When trying to determine how much vitamin c should I take, is there a possibility that very large doses of Vitamin C and the B vitamins and Vitamin A, beta carotene and Vitamin E, would have much additional value in improving the health of the people?

Twenty five years ago, when I became interested in vitamins, it was just that question that interested me. I looked in the medical and nutritional literature to find out how much Vitamin C a person should take in order to be in the best health, perhaps to control diseases other than scurvy.

I couldn’t find anything and the result, of course, is for 25 years I have devoted much of my life and time and energy trying to find the answer to the. question – how much of these very powerful and important substances should we take to be in the best of health?

Q:How would you compare your vision of orthomolecular medicine and conventional medicine?

One of my colleagues in the field of orthomolecular medicine invented the word ‘toximolecular’ medicine to describe conventional medicine and this seems to me to be good in that conventional medical practice relies heavily on drugs, all of which essentially are toxic substances.

It’s hard for me to think of an example of a drug that is like the vitamins in having nearly zero toxicity. With aspirin, some patients with severe arthritis are advised by the physician to take as much as 10 grams of aspirin a day and it’s my memory that the LD50, the amount that would kill 50 per cent of patients, is 28 grams of aspirin and that’s why many people commit suicide by taking an overdose, a whole bottle full aspirin tablets. So I think that’s a good description of conventional medicine.

I’m not against drugs when they are properly used and have said so over and over again.

We advocate for every patient with cancer taking high doses of Vitamin C as an adjunct to appropriate conventional therapy and I agree with Dr Cameron that surgery – he was a surgeon – surgery is often the best treatment for a malignant condition if the malignant tumor can be removed and sometimes, for a few kinds of cancer, chemotherapy is known to have much value and, for some kinds, high energy radiation has value even though chemotherapy and high energy radiation have pretty serious side effects, are damaging to the body as a whole, nevertheless, the benefit may outweigh the disadvantages.

Q:How much Vitamin C should I take? And, If you take 3 grams should It be split throughout the day?

“How much vitamin c should I take?” is a great question and a common one.  In my opinion adults should be taking at least 2 grams a day. There is much evidence about increased health with 2 grams a day, and of course even more with 4 or 6 grams a day. Even an extra 60mg had been shown to add value in cutting down the death rate from heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Now my feeling is as people grow older they ought to be increasing their Vitamin C and perhaps they should follow the policy that I have followed of increasing the intake.

It can be either one chunk, one dose in the morning, or even better three doses throughout the day, increasing the intake until a laxative effect is observed, speeding up the rate of elimination of waste material from the bowel. So my suggestion is every person who wants to have the best of health should increase the intake of Vitamin C to somewhat less than the amount that causes significant looseness of the bowel.

Q:How do you think your opponents will remember you?

Dr. Pauling’s Final Comments on the question “How Much Vitamin C Should I Take?”

How much Vitamin C should I take from one glass of orange juiceMolecular biologists will of course remember me as one of the founders of molecular biology, and chemists in general will remember me as one of the founders of modern chemistry, changing it from a pretty descriptive to a far more rational sort of science, and physicians will remember me as having been at least in part, responsible for the revolution in medicine in which there is a great improvement in human health and in control of disease through the use of Vitamin C and other vitamins. This will include my opponents, although the opponents may have died off by that time.

Excerpts from interviews with Tony Edwards for QED BBC Television, and with Patrick Holford at the Power of Prevention conference.

Dr. Lam’s Key Questions

Are there any natural supplements that can help with sperm production?

Make sure you have a good diet and do regular exercise to start. As for supplements vitamin C, zinc, essential fatty acids, chromium, selenium, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and B-complex vitamins can all help with sperm production.

Since Vitamin C comes from tapioca, does boba or tapioca dessert contain Vitamin C?

No. It is a special process that extracts vitamin C from tapioca.

When trying to decide how much vitamin c should I take, why shouldn’t I take vitamin C later in the afternoon or in the evening?

For some people with AFS, vitamin C could be stimulating and causing sleepless nights.

How much vitamin c should I take
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thank you for posting such important information on your website. most of us are blinded to the facts, until we start digging. your page held a wealth of information, and i will be going back to read more. it is because of dedicated professional's like you, that want to make the changes to our standard healthcare,that enables us to find the answers we need to change our lives.


  • Brian says:

    Hello” I’m just starting the Pauling theraphy for on going heart disease and angina after cab and stent ing of a collapse in one of my bypasses. Taking plavix and there has been mention in some articles that lysine and plavix aren’t a good combo? Any information on this would be great!

    • Dr.Lam says:

      Gastric Inhibitors generally as a class of compounds on its own have many problems especially as it relates to cardiovascular issues. Lysine is a separate issue.

      Dr. Lam

  • e.f.barrett says:

    yrs ago I thought for myself the vit c and treating an oncoming cold. my treatment was very similar to the one in the interview. at the onset I took 1 gram,, hour later 2 grams, hour later 3grams, hour later 3 grams. relief was felt in 3-4 hours, almost always. never did the cold get worse after the 3rd dose.

  • Jawed Akhter says:

    Dear Dr Lam
    I do want to try Dr Pauling’s method, but as you have suggested further progress have been made since in the development of the quality of Vit C etc, and trying to digest the entire method, find appropriate dosage etc is a but overwhelming, particularly in my condition i wouldn’t want things to get worse. Hence my humble question to you – do you offer administrative treatment for Congestive Heart Failure? either using Dr Pauling’s method or your own discoveries.
    I am desperate to improve my heart function, its crippling me and depressing me further and further everyday.
    Can you help please.

    a brief medical history…
    I have had cardiac amyloidosis (AL Amyloidosis with Cardiac involvement) which has caused CHF since 2009.
    I was given chemo to supress amyloid production, but by the time amyloid production was put in control, my heart walls had thickened and the heart had enlarged. Causing moderate diastolic dysfunction and mild systolic dysfunction, LV dysfunction, reduced ejection fraction of 45-50%
    during dec’2013 due to symtomatic trifascicular block, a pacemaker was inserted.
    My Colonal Response from first chemo in 2009 recently relapsed and in September 2016 I started Chemo again, which did not go down very well this time, I developed toxicity in 4 weeks (after 1st cycle) and after 6 weeks of treatment (planned for 8 weeks) it had to be stopped, as I had too much fluid retention, sickness & diarrhoea.
    The Free Light Chain (FLC) ratio (the marker for amyloid production) had comeback down to normal range within the first 4 weeks of chemo. So the current situation is…
    – In CR from 2nd Chemo (in september 2016)
    – CHF,
    – Pacemaker inserted in 2012 – pacing 100% of the time
    – fluid retention (mainly in right pleura and abdomen area, little bit of pedal edema)
    – currently massively fatigued [i guess it is due to chemo – CRF (cancer related fatigue)]

    Current medication:
    – 120mg Frusomide twice daily plus
    – Metolazone 2.5mg once weekly
    – Eplereron 25mg once daily

    Before september 2016, in addition to the above I was taking: Bisoprolol 1.25mg once daily, Ramipril 2.5mg once daily, Asprin 75mg,
    they were stopped during the chemo as they were adding pressure on kidney and not started yet. also pre chemo Furosemide dosage were 80-100 mg twice daily and no Metolazone!

    PS: if you decide to post this comment, just use the first few lines, please remove the medical history

    • Dr.Lam says:

      Dr Pauling’s use of Vitamin C is for general cardiovascular endothelial wall stabilization through collagen rebuilding. For CHF, you need to follow conventional medicine for best results.

      Dr Lam

  • Kenner says:

    Dr. Pauling was truly a brilliant doctor. Where can I read more about his research, and how much of it is applicable to Adrenal Fatigue?

    • Dr.Lam says:

      Agreed. One of ehe most brilliant scientists on this past century. He is not afraid to be on the front and have the courage to stay there. For more info, Start with the The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State Health Sciences. His theory of orthomolecular medicine is applicable to all disease process, including AFS. If you understand how the cells work, you will understand by extrapolation how cellular fatigue from stress , as in the case of AFS, makes total sense.

      Dr Lam

  • Frank says:

    I know there are many different types of Vitamin C. What kinds would you recommend? Are some types better than others?

    Thank you and nice website!

    • Dr. Lam says:

      Different types are for different uses. Ascorbic acid works fastest, but also can be spiky and last shortest. Ascorbyl palmitate is fat soluble and more gentle. Calcium ascorbate ( Ester C) is easier on the GI system but it can be problematic for the heart. Magnesium ascorbate is good to help the body relax. Sodium ascorbate helps provide lost sodium in adrenal fatigue. We have yet to go into the delivery system yet. your best bet if you are serious about vitamin C is to find someone who knows what they are doing as you can be really spending a lot of money and not getting the value. this article may help. The Liponano delivery system is excellent also.

      Dr Lam

  • Thank you for providing thorough information. I just recently realized how valuable Vitamin C is to my body.